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  • Dynamic (moving-coil)
  • Condenser
  • Capacitor or electrostatic
  • Carbon
  • Piezoelectric
  • Fiber optic
  • Laser liquid
  • MEMS technology




  • Telecommunication
  • Consumer
  • Multimedia and professional applications


Microphones can be modeled at low frequencies by equivalent network comprising lumped elements with linear and nonlinear parameters. At higher frequencies, a model with distributed parameters is required. 
Due to the low mass of the diaphragm, the air has a significant influence on the mechanical vibration. Additional acoustical elements (cavities, ducts, damping material) are used to obtain a desired amplitude response. 
The stiffness of the mechanical suspension and acoustical damping are the dominant causes of nonlinear distortion in most microphones. 
The nonlinearities of dynamic microphones can be identified by using an electrical excitation and by measuring the voltage and current at the terminals. A measurement performed in vacuum shows the mechanical elements without the influence of air load. Mechanical vibration measured by laser scanning techniques is the basis for modal analysis.

Critical Issues

  • Internal noise
  • Maximal peak SPL
  • Flatness of the amplitude response on-axis
  • Desired directivity


  • IEEE Standard 269 IEEE Standard Methods for Measuring Transmission Performance of Analog and Digital telephone Sets, Handsets, and Headsets
  • ITU-T Recommendation P.79 Telephone Transmission Quality, Measurements related to speech loudness
  • IEEE Standard 1329 Standard Method for Measuring Transmission Performance of Handsfree Telephone Sets
  • ANSI S3.22-2003 Specification of Hearing Aid Characteristics
  • ANSI S3.7 Method for Coupler Calibration of Earphones
  • ANSI S3.25 Standard  for an Occluded Ear Simulator

Most relevant Measurements 

Modules of R&D SYSTEM

Modules of QC SYSTEM

Linear parameters
(T/S, creep, inductance)

Linear Parameter Measurement (LPM)

Impedance task
Motor + Suspension Check (MSC)

Nonlinear parameters (only dynamic microphones)

Large Signal Identification (LSI Tweeter)

Motor + Suspension Check (MSC)

Mechanical parameters (without air load)

Vacuum Measurement Set


Rub & Buzz and other irregular defects

Transfer Function Module (TRF PRO)

Standard, Programmable System


Amplitude response
(sensitivity, mean SPL, polarity)

Transfer Function Module (TRF)
3D-Distortion Module (DIS)

Basic, Standard, Programmable System

Nonlinear harmonic distortion
(THD, components)

Transfer Function Module (TRF)
3D-Distortion Module (DIS)

Basic, Standard, Programmable System

Intermodulation distortion (IMD)

3D-Distortion Module (DIS)


Amplitude intermodulation distortion (AMD)
(modulation of the fundamental)

3D-Distortion Module (DIS PRO)


Thermal and nonlinear compression
(fundamental, harmonics, dc displacement)

3D-Distortion Module (DIS)


Peak displacement
DC displacement

3D-Distortion Module (DIS)
Transfer Function Module (TRF)
Large Signal Identification (LSI)


Multi-tone distortion

Linear Parameter Measurement (LPM)

Multi-tone task in Standard System

Phase response

Transfer Function Module (TRF)

System task

Minimal-phase, excess-phase, group delay

Transfer Function Module (TRF)


Time-frequency analysis (Wigner, cumulative decay spectrum, sonagraph, wavelet, …)

Transfer Function Module (TRF)


Distortion generated by dominant nonlinearities
Bl(x), Cms(x), Le(x), Rms(v) in reproduced audio signal

Auralization Module (AUR)
Large Signal Identification (LSI)
Power Test (PWT)


Accumulated acceleration level (AAL)

Scanning Vibrometer (SCN)


Modal analysis and decomposition techniques to find
circumferential, radial components and rocking modes

Scanning Vibrometer (SCN)
Rocking Mode Analysis (RMA)
Higher Modal Analysis (HMA)


Radiation analysis
(sound pressure on-axis, directivity index, sound power)

Scanning Vibrometer (SCN)


Auralization (only dynamic microphones)

Auralization Module (AUR)